Basic Rules for Bread and Possible Faults : LUSENET : Cooking & Crafts : One Thread

Basic Rules for Bread and Possible Faults by Olga Drozd Do follow recipe quantities for flour, yeast and liquid.

Do warm both basin and flour to avoid chilling the dough, which slows up the working of the yeast.

Do make the dough rather on the soft side for a light loaf. If the dough is too stiff it cannot expand under the influence of the yeast.

Do work the dough thoroughly to ensure an even distribution of yeast through the dough. If this is not done, the yeast will not work properly and the dough will not rise enough.

Cover during rising with a lightly greased polythene bag or a wet tea cloth (which must not be allowed to dry out).

Do keep the dough warm, and warm the tins.

Don't make the dough too hot or it will produce a very coarse, breakable crumb or irregular texture.

Don't try to shorten the rising time of the dough. Under-proving or under-fermentation will give a heavy soggy loaf with a crust that may break away from the top.

Don't let the dough rise for too long. Over-proving or over-fermentation results in a loss of strength, colour, scent and flavour.

Don't bake the bread at too low a temperature or it will be pale, moist and flavourless. The oven must be pre-heated and at the correct temperature.


POOR VOLUME, pale crust and flat top. Dough too wet or too dry. Too little salt or yeast. Flour too soft or self-raising. Proving temperature too high and/or too long. Insufficiently kneaded. Under-fermented.

"FLYING TOP" or cracked crust. Flour too soft. Dough too tight. Fermentation time not long enough. Too much dough for size of tin.

HEAVY CLOSE TEXTURE. Flour too soft. Too much salt. Insufficient kneading or fermentation time. Yeast killed by rising in too hot a place. Oven too cool, therefore over-long baking time.

UNEVEN TEXTURE AND HOLES. Too much liquid/salt. Too long or too short fermentation. Not sufficiently kneaded after first rising. Over-proved. Dough left uncovered during first rising, therefore forming a hard skin which will give streaks when kneaded.

COARSE CRUMB AND POOR CRUMB COLOUR. Flour too soft. Insufficient salt. Dough too tight. Under-or over-proving.

SOUR ACID AND YEASTY FLAVOUR. Too much yeast, stale yeast or yeast creamed with sugar. Too long fermentation.

BREAD STALES QUICKLY AND IS CRUMBLY. Too much yeast. Flour too soft. Rising too quickly in too warm a place--over-fermentation.

-- Marie (, February 08, 2002

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